General Science Chemistry-GK Part3

General Science Chemistry-GK Part3, Acids, Bases and PH

Acids:- Acids are chemical compounds that taste sour, turn blue litmus red, and often react with some metals to produce hydrogen gases.

Bases:- Bases are chemical compounds that taste bitter, turn red litmus blue, and feel slippery.

pH:-The pH of a solution measures the hydrogen ion concentration in that solution.

General Science Chemistry-GK Part3

Uses of Some Acids and Bases

AcidsUses
Nitric acid, oxalic acidPhotography
Sulphuric acidPetroleum exploration
Hydrochloric acidLeather Industry
Benzoic acid, formic acid, citric acid, acetic acid, etc…Preservation for foodstuff
Bases Uses
Calcium hydroxide and calcium oxideManufacture of bleaching powder
Magnesium hydroxideantacid in sugar industries
Sodium hydroxidemanufacture of hard soaps and drugs, paper and textile industry, petroleum refining
Potassium hydroxidemanufacture of soft soaps

Sources of Some Naturally Occuring Acids

AcidSource
Citric AcidLemon, Orange, Grapes
Maleic AcidUnripe Apple
Tartaric AcidTamarind
Acetic AcidVinegar
Lactic AcidMilk
Hydrochloric AcidStomach
Oxalic AcidTomato

Household Substances

AcidicBasic (Alkaline)
Bathroom AcidMilk of Magnesia (Antacids)
Vitamin C tablets (Ascorbic acids)Toothpaste
Lemon JuiceSoap Solution or detergent solution
Orange JuiceSolution of washing soda
Tomato JuiceSlaked lime & whitewash
Vinegar
Fizzy drinks (Colas & Sodawater)

pH value

SubstancespH Value
Sodium Hydroxide: Alkaline14.0
Ammonia11.0
Baking Soda8.3
Human Blood7.4
Pure Water7.0
Milk: Acid6.6
Tomatoes4.5
Wine and Beer4.0
Apples3.0
Vinegar2.2
Lemon Juice2.0
Battery Acid1.0
Urine (Human)5.5 to 7.5
Tears7.4
Seawater8.5
Milk (Cow)6.3 to 6.6
Coffe5.0
Toothpaste9.0

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